War is a necessary evil because it teaches humanity lessons what peace can’t. For example, war teaches that rival states, in some cases likeminded states too, must have a barrier between them to stay away from any direct hostile situation alarming for world peace.
From last two hundred years, the historic lessons and circumstantial phenomenon necessitated the existence of buffer zones guaranteed by other regional powers, primarily concerned to ensure their interests, in the region. The buffer zone can be a mass of water or land. Here are top 6 buffer zones spreading all over the world keeping global peace.
Russo- German coalition and collision, both are adverse for the European peace. After the First World War, the anti-status-quo regimes of Germany and Russia accredited existence of Poland as a key to peace of Europe. This is why the fall of Poland resulted into a declaration of the world war. Russia might keep itself aloof in the wake of the Steel Pact, but the boundless lust of Hitler dragged Russia into the war which ultimately followed a humiliated fall of German Nazi regime. In post-World War II era, Poland regained its attribution as the buffer zone between Russia and Germany.
Afghanistan is attributed as the buffer zone of Asia because it is surrounded by world’s significant regions such as the South Asia, the Central Asia, the Middle East and China. But most prominently it is a blessing for Pakistan, protected it from becoming a sandwich between India and USSR during the cold war era. Whenever its status of the buffer zone is challenged, world peace bothers. USSR attacked Afghanistan in 1979 and paid its cost in the form of its disintegration then the USA in 2001, and the entire world is paying the cost in the form of terrorism. Presently, various endeavors are on pace to re-establish its position of the buffer zone.
4. The Black Sea
Since the Crimean War of 1853, the black sea distinguished as the buffer zone between Russia and Turkey. After the demise of the cold war, its provenance supposed to be extended to all territorial countries against Russia. However, the situation went wrong when territorial countries were promptly receiving memberships of the EU and the NATO. Thus Russia responded with an iron hand and proved it too early to get so romantic and launched the attack on Georgia in 2007 then on Ukraine in 2014 and captured the Crimean peninsula. It was a strong message to the EU and the NATO to confine their limits. The situation is still tense in the region and subject to be redefined
During the pre-World War II era, German captured Poland and faced Russian anger, but in a case of capturing Austria, Germany faced warm welcome of Italy. In the Treaty of Versailles, Austria was described as the buffer zone between Italy and Germany. However, on his first expedition, Hitler annexed Austria and surprisingly received a little reaction from France and Britain as they were observing the development in the context of possible Russo-German aggression, but Hitler succeeded in his plan of building the fascist fortress consisted of Germany and Italy. After the conclusion of war, Austria revived and neutralized.
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2. The English Channel
Since Elizabeth I, Britain promoted the English Channel as the buffer zone between Europe and Britain. Britain successfully retained the defense of the English Channel because it built entire of its strategic and defense lines on the bases of defense of the English Channel which expressed in two World Wars where it proved the ultimate decisive battlefield. On the other hand, the English Channel contributed to earn superiority for Britain in 19th century as Napoleon launched the continental system against Britain which proved a blessing for Britain as in response; it shifted its core concerns from Europe to the rest of the world and adopted the colonial policy for exploring the countless resources of Asia and Africa. Resultantly, the industrial revolution in Britain got pace and left Europe far behind in upcoming years.
1. The Atlantic Ocean
Proclamation of Monroe Doctrine was an ultimate herald of stating the Atlantic Ocean as the buffer zone between both hemispheres. Primarily the USA aimed to keep the European Powers away from the American continental issues but with the passage of time, it became an understanding to all the eastern hemispheric countries to remain aloof in interfering in the western hemisphere. This is why any effort to break into the American land supposed to be the world’s disastrous event such as Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Terror Attack of 9/11 urges that apart from dramatic changes in world affairs, USA still keeps the Atlantic Ocean the buffer zone as its basic policy directive.