Professional athletes are under constant tension to perform. Body construction is not enough, and it grabs tools. The dark side of the sport is doping. Two terms frequently used and related to doping are androgenic and anabolic steroids. Androgens are substances which hold the male properties, including the sexual characteristics, in position.
When one external substance administered has an androgenic effect, the body detects the abundance of these compounds, and it will reduce the body’s production of androgens. When using high doses, this leads to testicular atrophy in few weeks, infertility and other side effects. The anabolic steroids are enhancing muscle mass and performance and promoting recovery effect.
So doping substances are usually official drugs or drugs that are still under investigation. Unauthorized use can lead to serious side effects. When doping is detected the greatest heroes suddenly fall. What are the six biggest doping scandals of all time?
1. Chinese Swimmer.
In the early nineties, Chinese swimmers began a remarkable rise. Contrary to expectations China will win at the World Aquatics Championships 1994 twelve gold medals. Moreover, it broke five world records. That leads almost directly to suspicions of doping. During the 1994 Asian Games, seven swimmers tested were tested positive because of steroid use.
The tests seem to have effect: just one gold medal at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. On the eve of the World Cup 1998, after a customs control, a significant amount of human growth hormone was found in the luggage of swimmer Yuan Yuan. It’s a stock that it’s enough for the entire women’s team. During the tournament still, four swimmers are tested positive.
From now on China tries to measure itself a stricter attitude about doping. Then during the 2012 Summer Olympics, the sixteen-year-old Chinese Ye Shiwen won two gold medals, but one with a world doping stories of the 90s were immediately stirred up. However, Ye Shiwen seems nevertheless to have saved really on their own.
2. 100 Meters Final at Seoul.
It is the final 100-meter sprint at the 1988 Summer Olympics, also called “The Dirtiest Race Ever.” Canadian Ben Johnson makes the audience amazed when he wins the game with a new world record of 9.79 seconds. One year before Johnson was out of nowhere when he stood up during the World Athletics Championships final won by Carl Lewis.
Few days after winning the gold medal were found anabolic steroids in his urine. Johnson lost his medal and record. The gold medal goes to Carl Lewis, who as it turned out later he used but came away with doping. The winner and doping-free Calvin Smith, one of the first five riders in the 100 meters final won the only bronze medal.
3. Operación Puerto: The Network Around Doctor Fuentes.
Operación Puerto is the name of the doping scandal around the Spanish doctor Eufemiano Fuentes. The case comes rolling when the police in a raid at the Fuentes home found 200 bags of blood and anabolic steroids in May 2006. One of the first victims was the Kelme cycling team which was excluded from the Tour de France.
Additionally, many favorites had not the start as Ullrich and Basso on the eve of the Tour. The Spanish court is still trying to close the Fuentes file but the following year more and more riders admit that they are customers of Fuentes. Around Fuentes seems to be a network of couriers who provide drugs to hundreds of athletes.
The lawsuit against Fuentes spent remarkably close attention to cycling as he states himself that other athletes, including tennis players and footballers, are concerned.
4. The Steroid Era (MLS).
American baseball had greatly suffered from the players’ strike of 1994 which even the World Series did not go through that season. Few years after that the sport made a miraculous comeback. Players became more muscular and spectacularly hunted Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa in 1998 on the legendary home run record Roger Maris.
This period is known as the Steroid Era where Major League admitted the doping complicity. Some articles reveal the use of anabolic steroids to open slowly closed eyes, and eventually strict controls get started. The Mitchell Report 2007 mentions 89 names of players who at that time used doping, including Roger Clemens, one of the best pitchers of all time
5. The GDR Program.
During the existence of the German Democratic Republic has been systematically used doping program for decades. At 1976 the communist country experienced a sporting highlight at Olympics by winning 40 gold medals. After the fall of the Wall, the scale of the doping program became clear. Doping was widespread and athletes were tested in their country before they participated in competitions abroad.
Because the knowledge about doping was so advanced, they could perfect mask the drugs use. During the existence of GDR, it was hard any athlete to be caught doping even though the physical transformation of many athletes were striking. Many young athletes who begun training programs knew nothing about the administration.
6. Lance Armstrong and the US Postal Team.
The Festina scandal revealed that cycling and doping were inextricably linked. However, it would bring in the sport a scandal even bigger. The leading role was reserved for the most successful rider of all time. Lance Armstrong was a road racing cyclist who had overcome cancer and he won the Tour de France seven consecutive times. The rumors about doping were always present, but Armstrong always denied them.
Increasingly, riders from his US Postal team were caught doping. Some of them, including the former professional road racing cyclist and Tour winner Floyd Landis, accused their team leader not only of use but also of giving instructions to riders. At that time Armstrong’s status appears to be safe, but the US anti-doping agency indicted him. Five former teammates testified against him.
After several attacks against him, Armstrong still got all of his Tour victories but lost his profitable sponsorship contracts. The former sports hero appears to have been a doubter intimidated by the peloton dictator. During an interview with Oprah Winfrey, he admits to having used EPO, growth hormones, blood transfusions, testosterone, and cortisone.